Archive for January 24th, 2008

24
Jan
08

Reading List

Aluit, Alfonso J. 1994. By Sword and Fire: The Destruction of Manila in World War II 3 February – 3 March 1945. Manila: National Commission for Culture and Arts.

Angulo Enriquez, Diego. 1933-37. Plano de monumentos arquitectonicos en America y Filipinas existententes en el Archivo General de Indias. Sevilla: Laboratorio de Arte, 7 volumes.

Buckland, Ralph Kent. n.d. In the Land of the Filipinos. New York: Everywhere Publishing Co. In Cornell University’s online books (dlxs.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text).

Castro , Agustin Maria de. 1954. Misioneros Agustinos En El Extremo Oriente, 1565-1780 (Osario Venerable) Ed. Manuel Merinno. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificos, Instituto Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo.

Churchill, Bernadita Reyes, editor.  Manila: Selected papers of the Annual Conference of the Manila Studies Association, 1989-1993. Manila: Manila Studies Association.

Cushner, Nicolas P. 1971. A Walking Tour of Historic Intramuros. Manila: Alemar-Phoenix Publishing House.

Diaz-Trechuelo Spinola, María Lourdes. 1959. Arquitectura española en Filipinas (1565-1800) Sevilla: Escuela de studios hispano-americanos de Sevilla.

 

Diaz-Trechuelo, Lourdes. 1959. Arquitectura española en Filipinas (1565-1800).  Sevilla: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla.

Gatbonton, Esperanza Bunag 1980. Intramuros: A Historical Guide. Manila: Intramuros Administration.

__________. 1985.Bastion San Diego. Manila: Intramuros Administration.

Hannaford, E. (Adjutant). 1900. History and Description of the Picturesque Philippines with Entertaining Accounts of the People and their Modes of Living, Customs, Industires, Climate and Present Conditions. Springfield, Ohio: The Crowell and Kirkpatrick Co. In Cornell University’s online books (dlxs.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text)

Herbella, Manuel. Manual de construcciones y de fortificacion de campana en filipinas. Madrid: Lit de J. Pajares.

Historical Notes Concerning Manila to Accompany the Index Map of Manila. 1904. Manila: Philippines Division, Adjutant General’s Office.

Huerta, Felix, de. 1865. Estado Geografico, Topografico, Estadistico, Historico-Religioso de la Santa y Apostolica Provincia de San Gregorio Magno, Binondo: Imprenta de M. Sanchez y Compañia

Intramuros and Beyond. Manila. n.d.  Manila: Letran College.

Ira, Luning B and Isagani Medina. 1977. Streets of Manila. Quezon City: GCF Books.

Jarauta de la Consolacion, Ricardo. ©1931, Album de la Orden de Agustinos Recoletos. n.p.

Javellana, Rene B. 1997. Fortress of Empire: Spanish colonial fortifications of the Philippines, 1565-1898. Makati: Bookmark, Inc.

Joaquin, Nick, editor.  1988. Intramuros. Manila: Philippine Daily Inquirer

Jose, Regalado Trota. 1991. Simbahan: Church art in the colonial Philippines, 1565-1898. Makati: Ayala Museum.

Lala, Ramon Reyes. 1899. The Philippine Islands by Ramon Reyes Lala, a Native of Manila, Illustrated. New York: Continental Publishing Co. In Cornell University’s online books (dlxs.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text).

Laya, Jaime. editor. 1981. Intramuros of Memory. Manila: Intramuros Administration.

Makabenta, Eduardo T. 1995. Carigara: Six Hundred Years of History in a Town in Leyte. Quezon City; Carigara 400, Inc.

Manila 1571-1898: Occidente en el oriente. 1998. Madrid: Comision de Estudios de Obras Publicas y Urbanismo CEHOPU.

Navy Guide to Cavite and Manila, 1900. Manila. In Cornell University’s online books (dlxs.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text).

Order of Augustinian Recollects: Vicariate of the Philippines and China. 1988. n.p.

Ortiz Armengol, Pedro. 1958. Intramuros de Manila de 1571 hasta su destrucción en 1945. Manila: Ediciones de Cultura Hispanica.

Puertos y fortificaciones en America y Filipinas. 1985. Madrid: (CEHOPU)

Redondo, Felipe Sendino. 1886. Breve Reseña de lo que fue y lo que es la Diócesis de Cebú en las Islas Filipinas. Manila: Establecomeinto Tipografico del Colegio de Sto. Tomás.

Ruiz, Licino. 1925. Sinopsis Historica de la Provincia de San Nicolas de Tolentino. Mnaila: Tip. Pont. de la UST.

Sawyer, Fredrick. 1900. The inhabitants of the Philippines. London Sampson, Low and Marston and Co. In Cornell University’s online books (dlxs.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text).

Schreurs, Peter. 1983.  “The royal fort of Tandag (1609-1823) In PQCS 11:107-122.

Servicio historico militar y servicio geografico del ejercito. 1996 Cartografia y relaciones historicos de Ultramar: Tomo X en 2 Libros, Filipinas. Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa.

Spoehr, Alexander. 1974. “Spanish remains in Sulu.” In Sulu Studies 3 (1974) 105-114.

Tracy, Nicolas. 1995. Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on Manila in the Seven Years War. University of Exeter Press.

 Valdes Tamon, Fernando. 1738. “Relacion” translated as Report in which, by order of his Catholic Majesty … the strongholds, castles, forts and garrisons of the provinces under his royal protection in the Philippine Islands are listed. 1995 ed.  Santander Investments.

 

  • Villacorta, Wilfrido V, et al. editor. 1989. Manila: History, People and Culture. Manila: DLSU Press.L

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24
Jan
08

Military Terms

Glossary of Military Architecture*

 

Abaluartar: A system of fortification using bastions (baluarte) with fronts and lines protected by bastions.

Adarve (top of wall): A word of Arabic origin.  In a medieval castle, it is the area for maneuvering weapons of ancient design used for defending the castle from the battlements.  In a modern fort, this circulatory space is maintained although it is broader and more dynamic.  It is used for gun emplacements and for the movement of a large contingent.  It is the space bounded by the parapet and the inner wall (countermure/ contramuralla).

Philippine usage: Adobe: Volcanic tuff, a type of sedimentary stone formed by volcanic ash and other volcanic ejecta like pumice. Not to be confused with the American usage, which refer to sun-dried bricks.

Aljibe (cistern): This storage for water is also called cisterna.  It is usually below ground and its walls are covered with masonry or brick vault, well-built and whitewashed.  Canals fill it with rainwater through a filtration system.  Water first passes through a chamber called purificador (water purifier), which functions as a filter and where impurities are trapped.  These chambers are located a few meters from the cistern and, at times, is confused for its outlet.  These cisterns are crucial because they guaranteed survival during an extended blockade.

Almacen (storehouse): Auxiliary units in a fortification.  This is located in a bombproof area, that is, protected by stone vaults or within the plaza de armas.  Its function varies: for the food supply of the troops (that is, for all sorts of food for the officials and the rank and file) for an armory and the munitions (cannons, mortars, gun carriages, bullets, bombs) and for storage of gunpowder.

Almena (battlement, merlon): An element used in medieval fortifications.  Completing a section of the upper part of the walls, it is formed by a small opening where it was customary to place a soldier with bow and arrow, crossbow, or whatever arms of ancient design.  At the side, a narrow prism assured the life of the defender.  In modern fortification, the parapet with its embrassures and merlons replaces this battlement.

Antefoso: Some authors consider this term inappropriate, preferring contrafoso which consists in digging a ditch at a flat area in front of a fort or on the slope of a glacis, and throwing up the earth as a mound before it.  This is done to add obstacles before the curtain wall and adjoining bastions.  The ditch is often filled with water.

Aspillera (embrassure, loophole, crenel): A linear opening, usually vertical for placing a rifle of whatever type of portable arms.  From within the walls, this opening has a radial aperture that allows for the manuevering of arms.  It is the loophole (saetera) of medieval fortification, but greatly improved.

Atalaya (watchtower): A sentry post, which on occasion may be used for defense.  For this purpose, it is generally built as a tall cylindrical tower from which to spot enemies coming from the sea or land.  This terminology was more commonly used during the Middle Ages.  In the modern epoch, it had its formal and conceptual variants and was thought of as a complementary work  (see TORRE).

Baluarte (bastion): It has a pentagonal shape, formed by two faces, two flanks and a gorge (an imaginary line that links the two facing flanks).  It had three angles: the principal which is formed by the two faces; the facing angles (fijante) formed by the flank and curtain wall; and the fianquente, which links the flanks with the faces.  The bastion is the most characteristic element of a bastioned fort.  The faces are proportioned to the flanks and the flanks to the curtain wall.  This element revolutionized military architecture in the 16th century.  With its introduction, the problem of the blind angles of a medieval castle was solved.  (Note: A bastion, which lacks a face or flank, is called demi-bastion.)

Philippine usage: baluarte (watchtower): Also, castillo, bantayan, lantawan, kuta, lantawan sa hari, tore, bastion.  An independent coastal structure usually two floors and roofed.  Equipt with signaling devices used to warn the town of impending attacks.  The watchtower could be made of stone and mortar or rubble and mortar or could be an elevated blockhouse of stout timber. Usually built at the initiative of the community and resident priest or local official.  Manned by volunteer sentinels.

Banqueta (Platform): Platform made of masonry or cut stone, placed at the lower part of a merlon.  A soldier going up a platfrom through steps or a ramp was covered by the merlon to chest height.  At the lower part of the banqueta and at the opening of a parapet, a space is left for a canal through which rainwater flows.

Barbacana (barbican): A forward structure used to protect the gates of fortified area or a medieval castle.  In modern American military architecture, a ravelin or other forward structures conceptually and formally replace this element.

Barbeta (barbet): An uncovered artillery emplacement.

Barricada (barricade): An obstacle made of barrels, lumber, stone, tree trunks, etc., in the manner of a parapet, to prevent the passage of an enemy to a town.  It is a type of field or temporary fortification.

Philippine usage: baroto (boat): Also, baluto, bangka. The generic term baroto covers a variety of indigenous sailing vessels. These may be small, single person dugouts propelled by oar and possibly sail. Called bangka (from the Spanish banca meaning board) these were riverine dugouts adapted to still waters. For venturing out to sea, the baroto had outriggers attached to them. These floaters, traditionally made of bamboo, either attached to one side or both sides of a boat. Called katig, these floaters stabilized a boat when it sailed through rough waters or where currents were swift. These boats were maneuvered by sail called layag (which in Tagalog is synonymous to travel) and by oar (gaod) which also served as rudder.

Various types of baroto are known depending on size, design, structure and place of origin.

·      Paraw, also parao, proa was the simplest of the sailing baroto. It was built to carry one person, two would be possible but ill-advised.

·      Barangay also balanghay is a larger boat meant primarily for the transport of people and goods. They could be outfitted for battle.

·      Caracoa, also kora-kora is a fighting vessel that could carry a contingent of between 75 to 100. Over the horizontal poles that connected the outrigger to the hull, seats were made for a team of rowers. Working in unison and aided by wind, the caracao would cut quickly through the waters.

·      Garay is a smaller version of the caracoa and associated with the ethnic communites of the Sulu archipelago. It carried a crew of about 60 under a captain, known as nadoka.

·      Sapit was another sea-going vessel of the Sulu archipelago but it was meant primarily for transport and for ceremonial purposes.

·      Lepa, also lipa, associated with the Sama Laut or Sama di laut, also known as a Badjao, was a houseboat where the Sama spent most of their lives.

With the introduction of Western-type boats, the local boats evolved. A rudder (timon) was attached to the bigger boats and a superstructure built, fore or aft of the boat. The fore superstructure usually carried a lantaka or some armament when outfitted for battle.

Western-influenced boats are the cargo vessel of the Visayas and Palawan, the batel or batil and the falua of Batanes. These boats had deep rounded hulls that bobbed in the sea. They were slow but capacious so were fit for the task of transportation. Another type of cargo vessel was the casco used for river transport. Flat-bottomed or shallow, it had no outriggers but had a wide berth suitable for cargo.

Boats were a complementary part of military defense in the Philippine archipelago. Since the coast were exposed to attack and enemies often came sailing toward coastal towns, a strategy of putting together static fortifications (the bastion forts, blockhouses and watchtowers) were complemented with a mobile armada composed of indigenous vessels. These were best fit for maneuvering through the mangrove swamps, the submerged sandbars, reefs and shoals that fringe Philippine islands. The village armada engaged the attackers at sea, preventing them from landing at all cost.

The indigenous boat, thus, deserves a lengthy mention in any discussion of fortifications as an effective strategy of control.

Bastion:  French term used synonymously for baluarte.

Bateria (battery): It is a gun emplacement area, which can bear the weight of a number of cannons.  When it is uncovered it is called a barbet-battery and its range of action is dynamic, but it is exposed to enemy fire.  But when it is covered it is vaulted-battery and its range limited, however, it has the advantage of being protected.  It was first used as a simplified form in 16th century for the space below the castle.  It became a permanent feature and functioned actively in the defense systems of coastal areas from the beginning of the 18th century.  It was widely used in America.

Berma (berm): A space at the base of a wall, reinforced by an earth embankment so that stones and earthen projectiles hurled by the enemy do not clog the moat.

Blochaus (blockhouse): A square fortification of wood, covered with planks or tiles; it had a moat.

Philippine usage: blochaus (blockhouse):  Also muog.  Independent, freestanding, strong house with thick walls of mortar or timber, small openings.  May or may not be raised from the ground.  Built by the military or at the initiative of the local community.

Brecha (breach): An opening in the wall of a fort or of a settlement, made by the enemy to assault and penetrate forcibly whatever is in the fortification.

Caballero (cavalier): A defensive structure built over another to give it greater elevation and visibility from the field outside.  It is located along the curtain wall or the bastion’s gorge.  Generally, it is customary to place them parallel to the flanks and curtains.  They form a second bastion for augmenting the line of fire from an elevated area.

Up to the 18th century the term caballero connoted the idea of domination, or of something placed above another.  Caballero de baluarte was a smaller bastion with lines parallel to the a bigger bastion, built as redoubt and final refuge and defense structure.

Cal y canto (lime and cut stone): A method of construction using finely cut stone bound with lime mortar. Also Philippine usage: calicanto

Philippine usage: de cota.  Similar method of construction similar cal y canto but using rough or uncut stones arranged like riprap and bound with mortar.  de mamposteria (rubblework): similar to de cota construction except that the stones used are smaller and embedded in the lime mortar haphazardly.  These rougher type constructions had several layers of lime plaster finish (paletada/ palitada).

Calabazo (jail)

Philippine usage: preso, presohan, bilanggo, bilangguan, kulungan

Camino cubierto (covered walkway): Also known as esplato, explanada, estrad cubierta, estrada encubierta.  A wide esplanade bounded by the open field with a parapet and of the height of person and a banqueta (step), from which a soldier can fire a rifle outward.  Here a palisade is built in times of war to retard the movement of enemies.  Sometimes, at the center a much wider circulatory space is built for troop formation and this space is enclosed by transverses.

Camino de ronda (patrol road): Also known as paso de ronda.  This is a road that reaches out to the perimeter and was built in medieval castles for the passage of roving guards.  With the appearance of site artillery, the perimeter walkway was transferred to the interior and widened.  It was known as adarve (See ADARVE).

Philippine usage: Campanario (Bell tower): Also torre, cimborio.  Doubles as the bell tower of the town church and built beside or apart from the church.  The ringing of bells was used to signal impending attacks.

Campo de Marte (field of Mars): From the walls of a city to the exterior, an extensive space is left clear of all types of construction and vegetation, and called Field of Mars.  This was used for military exercises.  It was common to keep a distance of about a league from the wall clear of all objects, which might permit access or threat from the enemy.

Cañonera (embrassure): Also known as tronera.  Space for placing the barrel of a cannon between merlons.  In modern fortifications, the cañonera was replaced by the embrassure.

Capilla (chapel):  In a developed bastioned fort a small chapel was built.  Services were held for the soldiers by the military chaplain.  In the Philippines, he was also the local missionary or parish priest.

Capital: An imaginary line that divides a structure into two along the salient angle.

Caponera (caponier): A road located over a moat where there is no bridge.  A wall on either side to protect the artillery troop flanks it.

Cara (face): A fortified line, which faces the exterior to withstand bombardment from the front.  In a bastion, faces refer to two walls that meet at a salient or which form the capital angle.

Carcasa: An incendiary bomb.

Casa-fuerte (strong house): A type of architecture reminiscent of medieval works built primarily during the process of Spanish conquest and colonization in the Carribean.  Sobriety, enclosure and compactness characterize its architecture.  Rectangular or quadrilateral in plan, it is surrounded by wall with battlements.   Its walls are of mortar, adobe or packed earth, surmounted by a battlement.  In the façade is displayed the arms of a Spanish noble.  It is used as the residence of the governors and mayors.

Casamata (casement): A vault for the lower flank of a wall. It has the advantage of being bomb proof: protecting artillery and guaranteeing a safe refuge.  When cannons are fired inside the vaulted chamber, the gases escape through a respirator, lantern, or chimney for air, usually located at the roof of a dome, and in some rare cases along the sides of the casement.  The defensive element can be of the elliptical form and is usually situated at the flanks of a fortification to protect the principal gate.

Philippine usage: The vaulted ceiling of the casamata is sometimes called boveda, although is not accurate usage as boveda refers to a church dome.

Castillo (castle): A well-built medieval fortification, preferably located on top of a promontory for the defense of the feudal lord and his vassals.  Its walls of mortar or brick are vertical, tall, crowned with battlements, and with towers at the corners and one principal tower (the keep) in the interior.  The classical works of modern military architecture use the term “castle” for permanent fortifications with more than three bastions.

Cavallero (cavalier): A super-structure built on top of a wall, usually a gun emplacement or a well-fortified room for soldiers.

Cestón (gabion): Also called cesta.  A cylinder without a bottom, woven of branches about 5 to 6 feet tall and 4 in diameter, filled with earth and serves as quick method of shielding and for covering.  Its use goes back to antiquity.

Circumavalacion: A continuous or discontinous defense line consisting of trenches, forts, obstacles and other works of fortification built in an area against an attacking army.

Ciudadela (citadel ): A special area in an open space which protects the side of a town or a filed.  From the Italain “cittadela” which is an element of permanent fortification.  The antecedents of it in antiquity and the Middle Ages are known as acropolis, capitol, alcazar, alcazaba, castle, el macho, torre de homaje, etc.  The modern citadel has modified the ancient form being more solidly and soundly built.  It is classified as a type of permanent fortification, which is part of general defense strategy of a state in readiness for war.

Philippine usage: ciudadela (fortified settlement/city): Also intramuros, ciudad murada.  Citadel.  A civil, religious, business and residential community surrounded by a defensive wall; it may have bastions and towers at the corners or strategic points of the curtain wall.  May be built at the community’s initiative in which case a volunteer militia, drawn from the residents, mans it.

Philippine usage: cohetes (signal rockets).  Rockets were introduced by the Chinese as pyrotechnics for festivals, however, they found military use as signal flares to warn that marauding bands had been sighted off shore.

Colisas (swivel gun): Refers to batteries for swivel guns.

Común (latrine): A small structure, which in a fortification serves as a latrine.

Philippine usage: casillas.  Also banyo.

Contrafuerte (buttress): A solid piece of support or abutment located at the outer slope to give stability to the walls of a fort, or a polvorin (storehouse for gunpowder) or other vaulted constructions.

Philippine usage: estribo.

Contraguardia (counter-guard): A forward structure whose two straight walls and angle cover the salient and two faces of a bastion in a bastioned fort.  Its walls are customarily angled.  This structure defends the front of a bastion and acts as forewall against frontal attacks.

Contramuralla (inner wall, countermure): Part of the curtain wall that faces the interior of a fortification, covered by an embankment and a covering.

Contrasescarpa (counterscarp): A wall slightly angled (escarpado), which bounds the moat at the side of the covered walkway.  The escarp of a fort bounds the other side of the moat.  At the counterscarp are found steps used by troops to go to the covered walkway.

Cordón magistral: It is formed by a protruding, compact and semi-circular, moulding.  It has a decorative and as well as constructive function; because it is a feature that divides the parapet from the angled walls of a permanent fortification, the cordon reveals the proportion between the height of the parapet and the level of the top of the wall.  From the glacis alone is it possible to visualize the cordon and the parapet, thus other features remain hidden from attackers.

Cortadura: Moat or defensive obstacle in a road or opening to stop or impede passage in case of attack.

Cortina (curtain wall): An angled straight wall, which joins two demi-bastions.  It forms a defensive or bastioned front that is dynamic and from which is launched straight and crossfires.  The curtain wall had a set dimension, which varied according the epochs in response to the technological development of armaments.

Cuartel (barracks): Quarters for the officials and troops located inside a vaulted chamber of fort or in another type of construction of lighter material located at the plaza de armas.  At the beginning of the 19th century, the barracks assumed an independent look and spaciousness and solidity characterized its construction.  In the Americas, it was used for the artillery corps, cavalry and infantry.

Cuerpo de guardia (guardhouse): Originally it referred to a troop of soldiers, especially after they are regrouped after taking a position.  By extension it referred to a place or to troop quarters.  The quarters, generally vaulted, were located to the left and right of the principal entrance to the fort, although it can be located elsewhere.  The internal divisions are hierarchical: for offices, for troops, for munitions.

Cureña (cannon yoke): Base of the support of cannons.  It can be made of metal or wood.  Its form depends on specific use: for field battles, for coastal battles, for permanent fortifications, etc.

Edificio militar (military buildings): All fortifications have military buildings for the comfort of the commander, the officers, and troops, a hospital, storehouses for food, munitions, and bullets.  When these are not available some vaulted chambers are used for these purposes.  When built they are located at the plaza de armas because of space and safety considerations.

Escarpa (escarp): The angle given to a the wall of a fort, for the two-fold purpose of making the principal wall durable and making canon shots ricochete off the solid wall, built of stone and mortar.

Espalda: Or angulo de espalda is the angle formed by a bastion’s flank and face.  If the angle is rounded or curved it is referred to as orejon (orillon) otherwise it is called espalda.

Espaldon: Earthen mound used as cover against gunfire.

Estacada (palisade, stockade): A row of timbers raised vertically over the earth, joined by planks and horizontally placed tie-beams, and separated by a few centimeters distance from each timber.  The upright timbers end in sharp points to make it difficult for enemies to jump over them.  This structure is located at the covered walkway, bastion or moat, to impede the entrance of the enemy into the fortification.

Philippine usage: palizada, estacada, estaqueria (palisade): A type of temporary or field fortification made of stout timber or in the case of the Philippines also of coconut trunks, reinforced by an embankment of packed earth and rocks (earthwork).

Philippine usage: escolta.  Perimeter road outside the moat.

Estribo: A supporting structure or buttress.

Philippine usage: This term is more commonly used to refer to a buttress rather than the synonym contrafuerte.

Explanada (esplanade): A stone floor on which is placed heavy pieces of artillery.  The esplanade has a slight inclination toward the parapet to assure the easy maneuverability of the pieces of artillery.  Sometimes a wooden structure with a framework of wood planks is built over the flooring.

Facina (facine): Made of small branches mixed with earth and used for diverse works during the attack or defense of a fortified area, and to build approaches or dry a moat.

Flanco (flank): The flank is built perpendicular to the curtain wall and is generally a straight wall.  It may have an orillon, in the Italian manner (16th century) or rounded with an orillon (17th century).

Flanqueado: Salient angle of a fortification where crossfire from weapons on the walls cross.

Fortaleza (fortress): A generic term referring to any type of military architecture or defensive structure.  It is a symbol of impregnability and inaccesability.

Fortificación (fortification): A structure or series of structures used to defend a city or whatever site.  It may be permanent or temporary, facing landward or seaward.

Fortificación de la Campana (field fortification): A temporary fortification built during a military campaign, usually consisting of rocks, rammed or packed earth and stakes.

Fortificación permanente abluartada (permanent bastioned fort): A type of architecture introduced to the Americas at the beginning of the 16th century (In the Philippines during the early 17th century).  It is a type of permanent fortification.  Its plan employs a form geometric, symmetrical, mathematically precise, and harmonious.  Every element of the fortification is in proportion to the others.  It is designed in consonance with the terrain and its walls are made of rammed earth, crowned with parapets, and covered with durable stones, hewn as blocks.  It applies the principles somewhat fixed and used inchoately in development of military architecture.  The presence of bastions is the innovative feature, which solves the problem of blind angles and allows a dynamic range of action at the bastioned front.  This type is the highest expression of modern American military architecture and was common during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Philippine usage: fortified convento: Free standing convento (priests’ residence) with features of fortifications, e.g. windows with rifle slits, parapets, towers Usually built at the initiative of resident priest and community.

Philippine usage: fortified church complex: Church, convento, and auxiliary buildings either surrounded by a wall with or without bastions; or the church and convento structure itself is built with fortification in mind.  Usually built at the initiative of resident priest and community.

Fortín (fortin, fortlet):  A smaller type of fortification, characterized by simplicity in plan or design.  In general it has two stories and an open space.  It follows various geometric plans, although the rectangular is the most common. It is a type of field fortification.

Foso (moat): The moat is an essential element of permanent fortifications and runs around the area facing landward.  It is bounded by a fortification’s escarp and the covered walkway’s counterscarp.  It may be filled with water or not.  When filled with water, the moat is planned wide but not very deep, because water is the primary obstacle.  When dry, it is deeper and is generally used in conjunction with artillery.  The principal parts of a moat are the escarpa, fondo and contraescarpa (scarp, ditch and counterscarp)

Frente abaluartado (bastion trace): Also called defensive front (frente defensivo).  It consists of a curtain wall, two flanks and two demi-bastions.  At the curtain are placed mortars and a few cannons, and at times, none at all.  At the flanks are placed five or six canons for the defense of the moat.  Its faces receive the most bombardment because it is built to withstand battering from outside.

Fuerte (fortification, intrenchment): A fuerte may be separated from or dependent on a military garrison for the defense of a citadel.  Forward or detached fuertes are located outside the walls.  When located following an exterior line, it forms one circuit, so that one assists the other.  It is thus called entrenched field (campo atrincherado) or field with detached fortifications (plaza con fuertes destacados).

Philippine usage: Fuerza abaluartada (bastioned fort):, also fuerza, fuerte, castillo. Characterized by low, stout walls with projections from the curtain, called bastions (baluarte).  A military installation housing barracks, commander’s quarters, armory, storerooms, kitchen,  Armed with heavy artillery.  Generally built by the crown.  Under a fort commander with a standing army composed of Spanish and Mexican officers and native soldiers.

Galería : A vaulted subterranean passageway at the side of the counterscrap, which is a bit more than a meter in width and two in height.  The galleries need not communicate with one another.  From the main gallery others that are shallower and narrower fan out in different directions, and are called branches (ramales).

Gárgola (gutter, gargoyle): Canal where water flows from the tile floors or roofs or a fountain.

Garita (sentry box): A small auxiliary structure made of hewn stone or also of bricks.  It has three parts: the cupola, terminating in a pine or ball; the principal body, which has narrow alternate windows for discharging gunfire when the occasion calls for it and the base which terminates in a bracket and a ball.  The sentry box is located at the principal angle of a bastion or at its flanks, the center of a wall, which runs around a site, or at whatever angle of the enclosure.  It is a structure easily destroyed during a battle because it is exposed to the enemy firepower.  It took various forms: between the 16th and the 17th centuries the circular form dominated while the angular during the 18th, which often used the hexagonal plan.  It was much lighter, stylized and had more decorative details.

Glasis o glacis (glacis): A sloping earth embankment, which extended amply from the top of the covered walkway or from the border of the counterscarp to the natural line of the earth.  Usually, a stockade of timbers was built at its base to keep up the rammed earth embankment.  Its outline prevented the enemy from having a clear sight of the fortification from afar, it was so built that the part visible was from the cordon to the parapet.

Gola (gorge): An imaginary line, which linked a bastion, from flank to flank and its angled sides.

Hornabeque (hornwork): An outwork, forward or outer fortification, formed by a front curtain wall with two demi-bastion (frente abaluartado), moat and ravelin.  From the different faces of the bastion run straight walls of various lengths, which enclosed the fortification at the gorge.  When two demi-bastions met at the center it formed a complete bastion.  Two equal fronts form a double hornwork or crown.

Hornillo (chamber of a mine): In a mine (see MINA Y CONTRAMINA) it is the chamber where gunpowder is introduced to produce an explosion.  There are different types of hornillos.  These defended the covered walkways, the ravelins, bastions and curtain walls.

Philippine usage: Ilihan:  Also ili.  Natural-type of defense consisting of a hill, promontory or high place.  The high ground may be terraced or a built structure might be raised on the highest point.  Called ijang among the Ivatan.

Philippine usage: Kuta:  Also cota, cotta, muog. Indigenous type of fortification, similar to the palisade.  Equipped with native culverins and swivel guns, called lantaka.

Philippine usage: Lantaka: cast bronze small-bore cannons and swivel guns. The lantaka may be mounted on sea crafts to complement the static defenses of a place.

Lienzo de muralla (line of the curtain wall): Portions of a wall, which joined with one encloses a fortification and delimits the exterior space.  In an area where a curtain wall does not join two demi-bastions, the lienzo de muralla refers to a wall that encloses a space.

Linea capital: It is the imaginary line, which divides a bastion into two equal parts at the salient angle.

Linea magistral: It is an imaginary line originating from the center of a fortification.

Lumbrera (lantern): Also known as ventilation chimney or respirator.  An opening in a vaulted chamber, which serves the triple function of allowing gases from the canons to escape, illumination, and ventilation.

Luneta : Also known as entrenched position.  It is constructed at the corners of a counterscarp.  It has the form of a simple ravelin, with parapets, steps, and a gorge that terminates in an acute angle.  It function is to protect the easy passage of the covered walkway.

Maleçon: Wall or embankment used to contain the currents of a river, breakwater.

Matacán (machincolation): An element, cantelivered and hollow, supported by brackets, situated at the crown of towers and the curtain walls to protect the gate and the principal entrance of a medieval castle.  From this opening are dropped flaming balls, stones and other devices to impede the assault of the enemy.  It is used in modern fortifications in America, although not frequently.

Media luna (demi-lune): A forward structure similar to the ravelin with the difference that the demi-lune is placed in front of the principal angle of a bastion in a permanent bastioned fort.  At the same time it differs from the counter-guard (contraguardia), whose two long faces protect the faces of the bastion.  The demi-lune might be doubled or flanked; its gorge has the shape of a concave half moon.

Philippine usage: Confused with luneta, which is used as a synonym.

Merlón (merlon): Part of a parapet between one cannon emplacement and the next.  Its upper part is inclined.  Its lower part rests on the platform, from which a soldier, protected by the merlón up to chest height, can fire a rifle.

Mina y contramina (mine and countermine): Principal passage with its branches and chamber of the hornillo.  The mine and countermine are differentiated because the mine is used by the enemy (the attacker) and the countermine by the defender (the attacked).  The countermine is built at the base of the embankment, near the foundation, at the moat, the covered walkway, or esplanade.  This subterranean system is crucial for overcoming big obstacles.

Philippine usage: muog: A fortified tree house, made of timber and approached by a retractable ladder or rope.  Also a synonym of kuta, hence, used to translate fuerza.

Mira: In ancient terminology used to refer to a raised or superior point. 

Philippine usage: Used to refer to the company that was stationed on top of the gate of a fort.

Muralla (wall): Rectilinear walls that joined other walls at different levels and enclosed a fortification forming successive lines of walls.  It had no fixed dimensions like the curtain wall.  Also called muralla since antiquity was a type of permanent structure that enclosed a city.  Before the 16th century, the walls of a medieval city were formed by lines of tall, straight and angled walls, with the top perimeter crenelated, and towers at certain points.  In the modern epoch, the walls were made of lines that were more solid, thicker, made of cut stone or rammed earth.  Bastions replaced the towers and the parapets the crenelations.

Also refers to the built perimeter of a fort consisting of a continuous wall, distinguished from outer defenses.  In general, it refers to the permanent fortification of a site.

Obra exterior de avanzada (forward outworks): During the 18th century, such structures proliferated.  These are built within the line of a moat to defend a permanent fortification.  The ravelin, demi-lune, luneta, tenaille, large tenaille, hornwork and others extend to the field and protect the lines of defense.  They are obstacles that prevent the enemy from penetrating the principal fortification.

Orejón (orillon): An element at the salient flank of a bastion, which functions to protect the recessed sections of the flanks.

Palizada (Palisade): Syn empalizada, estacada

Parapeto (parapet): It is the prolongation or battlement of the angled walls of a fortification.  It is formed by alternating embrassures (cañoneras or troneras) and merlons.  It is built over an embankment of packed or rammed earth.  The dimensions of a parapet varied in relation to the gradual development of artillery.  During the 16th century it was about a meter wide but in the 18th it reached up to 7 or 8 meters.

Pilotaje: Bridge construction using wood columns or tree trunks as the piles of the bridge.

Plataforma (platform): Gun emplacement shaped as a rectangle or trapezoid.  It is different from the ordinary battery, which is simpler and whose radius of movement is limited.  Its function complements that of a fortification and at times covers the side faces of the bastions.

Plaza alta y baja: Used of the level where the battery is located.  When it functions at the upper part of a bastion it is called tall, and when the gun emplacement is at a lower level and bombproof, protected by a vaulted chamber it is called low.

Philippine usage: Plaza de armas:  Also plaza militar. An open space within the fort for military drills and formations guns.

Plaza de armas: A wide space within a fort used for troop formations.  The space of a covered walkway is also used when it has a rediente entante o salient.

Poliorcética: The art of attacking and defending a fortified area.  During an advancing siege and the positioning of siege weapons, the form of the site changes and in like manner the shape of the fortification.

Polvora (gunpowder): Explosive used for artillery fire.

Polvorín (gunpowder storage): The polvorin is a type of architecture known for its solidity.  It has thick walls, vaulted ceiling, supports and external buttresses and a heavy roof.

Posterna (Postern gate): Secondary exit, small and proceeds from a vaulted gallery through a ramp or stairs and connects to the moat.  Generally, it is found along the curtain wall, near the fixed angle (the angle the joins the wall with a bastion) or in the orillon.  From the side of the postern is established direct communication with the outer works and with covered walkways.

Philippine usage: postigo.

Puente (bridge): The bridge can either be raised or fixed (durmientes) or stable and are fixed on a base of wooden or stone pillars.  It sides has wooden guards.  A fortification can have two types of bridges: the drawbridge, which is nearest the principal gate, while the rest is a fixed bridge that connects with the field outside.  Others fortifications have composite bridges that communicate with the covered walkway, ravelin or tenaille.  At time, the fixed or stable bridge is paved for the convenience of pedestrians and to sustain the weight of passing carriages.

Puerta de la plaza (Gate of the plaza): This is placed at the center of a curtain wall because it is protected by the artillery from the flanks of the bastions, thus is covered by crossfire.  The gate is generally strongly built and reinforced with studs in the Spanish manner (ala española), the rest of the façade assumes a period style, and thus is an indication of the date of construction.

Rastrillo (portcullis) : A gate made of vertical timbers reinforced by horizontal and diagonal members.  It is customary to place these near the sentry boxes, bridges, subterranean passages, and other secondary entrances to impede the movement of enemies.  Also called rastrillo is the gate found at the principal entrance of a fortification or plaza de armas.  It is made of an iron grate, reinforced by braces, which runs above the lateral grooves, and is supported by cables or chains.  It hinders entrance or access when the occasion calls for it.

Recinto (fortified settlement perimeter): Another name for the perimeter of a plaza.  It is the continuous line of fortification that encloses a city classified as a plaza fuerte.

Rediente: This is the salient angle of a line of trenches or circulation, equivalent to two faces and gorge.  Its function is for flank attacks.

Reducto (redoubt): It is a type of quadrilateral or rectangular fortification of 30 to 60 yards (varas) in length.  It lacks flanks but at times it has a protruding prismatic structure, which cannot be considered a bastion.  It principal defensive structure is the elevation of its site, and its interior is protected by casements and the exterior with parapets.  It is a minor and complementary structure, which forms part of the defense system of a site.

Retreta: In general, trench work built at the two faces of one or more bastion and forming an angle.  It is raised once the primary fortification has been breached and hand to hand combat has ensue in order to prevent entrance into the fortification.

Revellín or rebellín(ravelin): An outer structure located in front of the curtain wall whose principal line coincides with magistral line of the fortification.  There are three types of ravelin.  The simple type has two faces joined at an acute angle, and has the same dimensions as the faces of a bastion.  The ravelin with flanks is similar to the simple ravelin but has flank angles like the bastion.  The double ravelin or with parapet, which is similar to the simple ravelin but different from the preceding because its has at its gorge a parapet with a small moat.  The faces always look out to the covered walkway.  In between is a ramp which leads to the upper space where there is an flat area with parapets; in the lower section is quarters for the troops, officers and supplies.  The ravelin is built within the moat to defend the flanks of a permanent fortification.

Semicirculares (semi-circulars): Bases on which swivel guns are placed.

Sistema defensivo (defense system): It is the organization of diverse elements combined into a whole.  It involves elevation, irregularities of the terrain, river mouths, canals for entering a port and other geographical and topographical peculiarities, combined in harmony with artillery direct or in

Soterrada (subterranean): Beneath the earth.  In the development of artillery during the middle 1800s, fortifications sought much protection from an earth embankment . During this period, appeared subterranean batteries with lodgings proper to this function.

Surtida (sallyport): Secret passage made by the besiegers.

Talud (talus): The angle of an embankment such as transverses, parapets, escarps and counterscraps of the wall.

Tambor: A small defensive element of field fortification, with a semi-circular plan or limited by a crenelated wall.  A tambor covers a weak spot, and serves as the flank of length of wall or curtain wall. It starts from a gate or the corner of an edifice.

Philippine usage: telegrafo: A signal system consisting of large colored flags.  The telegrafo was usually located on top of a watchtower.  At night bonfire or rockets (cohetes, kuwitis) were used.

Tenaza (tenaille): A forward defense but more complex than a tenazón.  It has two or more faces and its sides extend to the field.  The simple tenaille presents two faces; the double tenaille has four faces formed by two angles emerging from the curtain and one salient.  The tenaille with the swallow’s tail or the cleric’s hat has two wings that extend to the gorge.

Tenazón: A forward defense placed before the moat and before the curtain wall.  A tenazón is simple when it is made up of two lines coming at an angle.

Terraplen (earth embankment): In a palisade it was the mound of earth used to reinforce the curtain.  It could also refer to the glasis or to embankments raised to strengthen the foundations of a stone and mortar construction.  Also used to refer to the adarve, and by extension to a floor, or in field fortification to a flattened area on which a structure is built.  Terraplanar un muro: to repair an old wall by adding earth on top.

Tepes: A piece of earth cleared of plants and shaped as a quadrilateral generally used in field fortifications and in fortifications and in fortifications on a hill or elevated area.

Tinglado (projecting roof): A covering of lightwood used for the troops at rest.

Tiro de enfilda: The effect of an enemy attacking a fort, and destroying the defensive obstacles of an embankment.

Torre (tower): A minor type of military architecture, usually circular or rectangular in plan, with a crenelated perimeter and made of rammed earth.  Masonry or brick is used in its construction.  Its structure is not complex but is rather closed, compact, and massive.  It has a defensive function as well as sentry function.

Philippine usage: Commonly used in the Ilocos to refer to watchtowers.

Través: A solid, defensive structure, in the form of a shortened parapet, which generally traverses a covered walkway.  This is located perpendicular to the counterscarp to enclose the plaza de armas.  It function is to protect the fire of a line of soldiers.  Also called través are certain constructions that hold the storage for munitions.  The cartridges or charge of gunpowder and the grannade are transferred in wagons, which run through the middle of the roadway until the battery where the cannons are located.  According to La Llave, beneath the traverses are built vaulted chambers, which are covered with earth and protected from fire.  These serve to house the artillery corps when there are not at their posts beside the guns.  They reach the traves through a ramp.

Also used as synonym of flanco (flank)

Trinchera (trench): A defensive ditch that covers the bodies of soldiers.

Philippine usage: Verso (mortar). Small, hand held vertical cannons used for signal flares and explosives.  These cannons were used as warning devices and also for fireworks used in festivities.

Trocha: A line of fortifications forming a system, usually used to refer to a string of field fortifications built during a military campaign.

*Partly based on the “Glosario de términos sobre fortificaciones” by Tamara Blanes Martin of ICOMOS-Cuba (1998); and “Vocabulario militar” in Lourdes Diaz-Trechuelo Spinola (1959) Arquitectura española en Filipinas (1565-1800) pp. 549-53.  Translation, adaptation and additions on Philippine usage by René B. Javellana, S.J.

24
Jan
08

Fortifications of Mindanao

 

Fortifications of Mindanao

 

Region

 

Province

Catalogue Number Municipality/ City

Date of Construction/ Builder

Type

Status

Mindanao

 

 

 

 

 

Region 9: Zamboanga

 

Basilan

09-01 Isabela

( Isabel)

19th century: ca. 1844-48/ Military engineer following the plan of engineer Emilio Bernaldez

Bastioned fort

Demolished, site of Provincial Capitol

 

Zamboanga del Norte

09-02 Dapitan

(Santiago)

before 1738 (1762)/ Military

Natural site

Remains on Ilihan Hill

 

 

09-03 Katipunan

before 1791/ Uncertain

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

09-04 Sindangan

19th century/ Military

Military garrison

No remains

 

Zamboanga-Sibuguey

09-05 Recodo (la Caldera)

 

1593-99, 1831/ Military

 

Naval station

 

No remains, demolished 1967

 

 

09-06-06 Zamboanga City (Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zarragosa)

1635, 1719/

Melchor de Vera (Jesuit priest); Juan de Ciscara (military engineer)

Bastioned fort

 

Restored, under the National Museum, Zamboanga Branch

 

 

 

09-06-07 Santa Barbara

By 18th century

Fortified settlement

No remains

 

 

09-08 Santa Maria

19th century (before 1861)/ Military

Palisade with blockhouse

No remains

 

 

09-09 San Ramon

Before 1861/ Military

Miltiary garrison

No remains

 

Zamboanga del Sur

09-10 Margosatubig

Before 1861/ Military

 

Fortification

 

No remains

 

 

09-11 Tukuran

Before 1891/ Military

Fortification

No remains

Region 10: Northern Mindanao

 

Camiguin

10-01 Bonbon

 

Before 1871, probably late 18th century. Claims that the ruins are dated to the 16th cannot be supported./ Presumably Recollects and townspeople

Watchtower

 

Ruins

 

 

 

10-02 Guinsiliban

Probably late 18th century; construction data is inadequate. The watchtower might be older than this hypothetical date since the settlement was already established by 1598./ Probably Recollect friars

Watchtower

 

Ruins

 

 

 

10-03 Mambajao

Late 18th century/ Probably Recollects

Fortified church

No remains

 

Lanao del Norte

10-04 Iligan (San Miguel Arcanghel)

 

before 1738/ Spanish military, but an earlier fort (17th century) may have been built by the Jesuits.

Bastioned fort

 

 

No remains

 

 

 

 

10-05 Lianga (Almonte)

1892; an older fort may have built earlier but data is sketchy./ Corps of military engineers

Bastioned fort

 

Ruins

 

 

 

10-06 Baloi / Momungan (Weyler)

1891, reconstructed 1894./ Corps of military engineers

Field fortification

No remains

 

Misamis Occidental

10-07 Oroquieta

 

Inadequate data

Watchtower

 

 

No remains

 

 

 

 

10-08 Ozamis City (Nuestra Señora de la Concepción y Triunfo)

Various dates are given namely, 1754 or ca.1756; others state 1754 as the definite date when construction began./ José Ducos, SJ and Juan Nepomuceno Paver, SJ

Bastioned fort

Restored

 

Misamis Oriental

10-09 Cagayan de Oro City

 

before 1738, earlier fort probably 17th century. At a later time, the fort walls may have rebuilt later in stone./ Agustin de San Pedro, OAR

Fortified town

 

 

No remains

 

 

 

 

10-10 Hiponan

By mid-18th century/ Uncertain

Watchtower

 

 

 

 

10-11 Initao

By 18th century/ Uncertain

Watchower

 

No remains

 

 

10-12 Salay

By 18th century/ Uncertain

Watchower

 

Region 11: Davao

 

Davao Oriental

11-01 Cateel

Palisade by 18th century, most likely before 1734; stone fort uncertain./ Probably Recollect friars or military.

Fort

No remains

Region 12: SOCCCKSARGEN

 

Cotabato

12-01 Libungan

By 1889/ Military under Teniente de ingenieros Juan Barranco y González Estefani

Blockhouse

No remains

 

 

12-02 Pikit

1893/ Military

Bastioned fort

Ruins

 

Cotabato City

12-03 Cotabato City

By 1891/ Military

 

No remains

 

 

12-04 Tamontaka

By 1891/ Military

 

No remains

 

Sarangani

12-05 Sarangani

By 1891/ Military

 

No remains

 

Sultan Kudarat

12-06 Lebak

By 1891/ Military

 

No remains

Region 13  Caraga

 

Agusan

13-01 Butuan City

Probably 18th century/ Probably the Recollects

Wooden fortification

 

No remains

 

 

 

13-02 Linao (San José)

1680s/ Agustin de San Pedro OAR

Fortification

No remains

 

Caraga

13-03 Paniquian

Constructed by 18th century; stone tower probably around this time or later/ Probably the townspeople under the leadership of the local friar, most likely Fray Valero de San Agustin, the founder of the town

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

13-04 Tandag (San José)

1609; 1631 attacked by Caragas; 1754 attacked by Maguindanaos;

repaired later in 1761 and 1767; reported as in ruins by 1795, probably repaired afterwards/ Crown

Bastioned fort

No remains

 

 

Surigao

13-05 Cacub

 

Late 18th century, before 1779/ Probably Recollects

Watchtower

 

No remains

 

 

13-06-08 Various Sites

Late 18th century, before 1779/ Probably Recollects

Watchtowers

No remains

ARMM Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao

 

Maguinda-nao

ARMM-01 Dulawan (Regina Regente)

1896/ Military

Bastioned fort

Demolished 1970s

 

 

ARMM-02 Lambayong

Probably 19th  century/ Military

 

Bastioned fort

Ruins

 

 

ARMM-03 Parang

 

19th century/ Military

Fort

Ruins

 

 

ARMM-04 Polloc

By 1861/ Military

Fort

No remains

 

 

ARMM-05 Tinukup (Fuerte de Tinukup; Fuerte de Regina Cristina)

ca. 1892/ Military

 

No remains

 

 

ARMM-06 Various Sites

Before 1891. A photograph of the Kudaranga fort in the Filipinas Heritage Library (fhl AR0062), annotates the fortification as ca. 1890/ Military

Watchtowers

No remains

 

Lanao del Sur

ARMM-07 La Sabanilla

17th century, 1639, other date given 1649/ attributed to Melchor de Vera, S.J., who built Fort San José in Zamboanga in 1635 (See Catalogue 09-08/09)

Bastioned fort

No remains

 

 

ARMM-08 Malabang

1892 / Corps of military engineers under the direction Capitan Juan Gálvez y Delgado

 

Ruins

 

 

 

ARMM-09 Trocha

 

1891-1896 (other sites were built earlier, see below)/ Military

Bastioned fort

 

No remains

 

 

 

ARMM-10 Various Sites: Lake and River

ca. 1889-91; 1892; 1895/ Momungan fort Spanish military under Gov. Gen. Valeriano Weyler; he was governor general from 1889 to 1891.

Field fortifications

No remains

 

Jolo

ARMM-11 Jolo Pier

ca. 1878/ Military

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

ARMM-12 Jolo (Alfonso XII)

ca. 1878/ Military

 

Bastioned fort

Ruins

 

 

ARMM-13 Jolo Intramuros

1876-78/ Spanish military

Fortified town

 

Little remains

 

 

 

ARMM-14 Jolo (Princesa de Asturias)

ca. 1876-78/ Military

Bastioned fort

Demolished

 

Tawitawi

ARMM-15 Sibutu Island Siasi

After 1883/ Probably military

Watchtower

Unconfirmed

 

 

ARMM-16 Tawitawi, Bongao Island

After 1883/ Military

Watchtower

Unconfirmed

Region

Province

Catalogue Number Muncipality/ City

Date of construction

Type

Status

 

24
Jan
08

Fortifications of the Visayas

 

Fortifications of the Visayas

 

 

Region

Province

Catalogue Number Muncipality/ City

Date of

construction/Builder

Type

Status

Visayas

 

 

 

 

 

Region 6: Western Visayas

 

Capiz

06-01 Barra

Probably 19th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

06-02 Dumulog

Probably 19th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

06-03 Nipa Point (also Ford Point)

1814/ Probably Augustinians

Fortification

Ruins

 

 

06-04 Mambusao

By late-18th  century/ Probably Augustinians

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

06-05 Roxas City

Before 1738/ Military

Fortification

No remains

 

Iloilo

06-06 Between Guimbal and Miagao (at RASCO)

Probably late 18th century/ Augustinians; 1984, 2002 restored and repaired

Watchtower

Restored

 

 

06-07 Guimbal (at Br. Pescador)

Probably late 18th century/ Augustinians; 1984 restored

Watchtower

Restored

 

 

06-08 Guimbal

(at Br. Colon)

Probably late 18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Restored

 

 

06-09 Iloilo City (San Pedro)

1616/ Military; 1738, 1820: Subsequent repairs and improvement

Fortification

Little  remains

 

 

06-10 Miagao Baybay

1760 (accdg to NHI)/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Renovated

 

 

06-11 Miagao

1786-1797/ Francisco Maximo Gonzales OSA

Fortified church

Restored

 

Negros Occidental

06-12 Bacolod

1888/ Mauricio Ferrero OAR and Fernando Cuenca

Military barracks

Partial ruins

 

 

06-13 Himamaylan

Probably late 18th century/ Uncertain

Military garrison

Degraded

 

Antique

06-14 Bugasong

Probably late 18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

06-15 Libertad

Probably late 18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

06-16 San Jose

1792; 1812 subsequent repairs/ Augustinians

Triangular fortification

Ruins

 

Aklan

06-17 Batang

late 18th century – early 19th century/ Military

Watchtower

No remains

Region 7: Central Visayas

 

Negros Oriental

07-01 Ayungon

Probably 19th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-02 Dauin

Probably 19th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-03 Dumaguete

1760, 1811/ Recollects

Belltower

Renovated

 

 

07-04 Manjuyod

Probably 19th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

Cebu

07-05 Alcoy 1

Between 1802-1815/ Fray Julian Bermejo OSA

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-06 Alcoy 2

1802-1815/ Julian Bermejo OSA

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-07 Argao Rauis

1802-1815?/ Attributed to Julian Bermejo, OSA

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-08 Argao Poblacion

1783, 1803-1830/ Francisco Espina OSA and Mateo Pérez OSA

Fortified church

Renovated; some sections degraded

 

 

07-09 Boljoon Church

1802-1809/ Julian Bermejo OSA

Fortified church

Renovated

 

 

07-10 Boljoon Tower 2

1802-1809/ Julian Bermejo OSA

Blockhouse

Good condition

 

 

07-11 Boljoon Tower

1802-1815/ Julian Bermejo, OSA

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

07-12 Caceres

19th cent/ Julian Bermejo OSA

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-13 Caceres 2

19th cent/ Julian Bermejo OSA

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-14 Carcar Bas

Between 1802 and 1815/ Attributed to Fray Julian Bermejo OSA and townspeopl

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-15 Carcar Ocaña

Between 1802 and 1815/ Attributed to Fray Julian Bermejo OSA and townspeople

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-16 Carcar Valladolid

Between 1802 and 1815/ Attributed to Fray Julian Bermejo OSA and townspeople

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-17 Catmon

First half of 19th century between 1835 and 1843./ Attributed to Miguel (Martinez y de la Fuente) de Jesus, OAR, founder of Catmon and parish priest 1835-1843.

Fortification

Ruins

 

 

07-18 Cebu City (San Pedro)

1565 (palisade); ca. 1600-35 (first stone structure); 1738, 1833 renovation./ Spanish military under Miguel Lopez de Legazpi; attributed to Gianantonio Campioni, SJ; Tomas Castro?

Bastioned fort

Restored

 

 

07-19 Dalaguete  Coro

Insufficient data on foundations of watchtower facing the sea or on reputed watchtower on the nearby mountain,/ Most probably Julian Bermejo and townspeople

Watchtower

 

Ruins

 

 

07-20 Dalaguete 1768 Tower

1768/ Probably Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-21 Dalaguete Obong

Probably 19th century/ Attributed to Fray Julian Bermejo, OSA

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-22 Danao

Church constructed 1755, 19th century repairs/ Recollects, Fr. Manuel de Santa Barbara, OAR

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

07-23 Ginatilan

Probably 19th century/ Augustinians or secular clergy. Cebu’s secular clergy were in charge of Cebu Island’s western coast.

Fortified church

Little remains of fortification

 

 

07-24 Liloan Point Bagacay (Farola de Bagacay)

Uncertain, probably 19th century./ Probably military

Watchtower, Lighthouse

Degraded

 

 

07-25 Mactan Island Southeast Coast

Unknown/ Unknown

Fortifications

Ruins

 

 

07-26

Malabuyoc

Probably 19th century/ Probably secular clergy

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-27 Mandaue

19th cent?; probably after 1815/ Attributed to the Recollects

Watchtower

Renovated

 

 

07-28 Minglanilla

Insufficient data

Watchtower

Renovated

 

 

07-29 Oslob Daanglungsod Town

1789/ Most likely Augustinians

Fortified settlement

Ruins

 

 

 

07-30 Oslob Daanglungsod Tower

1789/ Most likely Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-31 Oslob Poblacion

1830-ca. 1858/ Various Augustinians: Julian Bermejo, Juan Aragones, Apolinar Alvarez, Mauricio Alvarez

Fortfiied chuch

Ruins

 

 

07-32 Oslob Watchtower

Late 18th-19th century?/ Most likely Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-33 Samboan

Uncertain, probably late 18th to  mid-19th cent.  The parish of San Miguel in Samboan was established in 1784. / Probably secular clergy.

Belltower

Degraded

 

 

07-34 Sogod

ca. 1832/  Most likely secular clergy

Watchtower

Ruins

 

Bohol

07-35 Baclayon

18th century: church built 1727, other structures uncertain dates of construction./ Jesuits

Fortified church

Renovated

 

 

 

07-36 Balilihan

1840/ Recollects

Belltower

 

Partial ruins

 

 

 

07-37 Cabilao

 

Most likely 18th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

 

Demolished

 

 

 

07-38 Cortes

 

Most likely, late-18th century to mid-19th century/ Probably Recollects

Fortified church

 

Degraded

 

 

 

07-39 Dauis Old Fort

 

18th cent/ Jesuit, probably Joseph Nepomuceno

Fortification

 

No remains

 

 

 

07-40 Dauis Tower

1774. The date is inscribed over the tower’s main entrance./ Santiago Corazon de Jesus, OAR

Watchtower

 

Good condition

 

 

 

07-41 Dimiao

Last quarter of the 18th century and 1817-21. / Recollects; 1817-21 construction by a maestro de obra under Enrique de Santo Tomas de Villanueva, OAR (parish priest of Dimíao 1797-1805, 1806-1812, and 1815-1817)

Fortification

Ruins

 

 

07-42 Jagna

Uncertain, insufficient data/ Probably Recollect

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

07-43 Loay Villalimpia

Probably 19th century/ Probably Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-44 Loboc

18th century/ Probably Jesuits.

Fortification

Uncertain

 

 

07-45 Loon

Fortification 1770s, present church 1855-64/ Fort by Recollects; church designed by Domingo Escondrillas, constructed under José Garcia, OAR

Fortified church

Ruins

 

 

07-46 Maribojoc

1778-1816; 1852-1872/ Recollects

Fortified church

Ruins

 

 

07-47 Panglao Island, Panglao

1851/ Recollects?

Belltower

Degraded

 

 

07-48 Pamilacan Island

Uncertain, probably 19th century?; 1877?/ Probably Recollect

Fortificatio

Ruins

 

 

07-49 Punta Cruz, Maribojoc

(San Vicente Ferrer)

1796/ Recollects

Fortification

Good condition

 

 

07-50 Tagbilaran

Uncertain/ Jesuits but most likely Recollects

Fortified church

Little remains

 

 

07-51 Tagbilaran (Escondrillas)

Second half of the 19th century, plan dated 1855/ Domingo de Escondrillas

Watchtower

Uncertain if built

 

 

07-52 Talibon

Insufficient data/ Probably Recollect

Fortified church

Ruins

 

 

07-53 Ubay

Uncertain, probably 19th century/ Probably Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

Bantayan

07-54 Bantayan Plaza

Uncertain, but the following dates have been suggested: After 1628 raids; 1790 even later ca. 1863. /Local parish priest, secular clergy, especially Fr. Doroteo Andrada del Rosario

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

07-55 Bantayan Poblacion

Uncertain, various dates are given—After 1628 raids; after 1790. But 19th century is the most likely date of construction./ Secular clergy, attributed to Fr. Doroteo Andrada del Rosario

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

07-56 Kabac

After 1628 raids; 1790/ Uncertain

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-57 Kaongkod

After 1628 raids; 1790/ Uncertain

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-58 Madridejos

After 1628 raids; 1790 or 97?; other dates ca. 1860,1880./ Uncertain as various dates of construction have been reported. Attributed to Fr. Doroteo Andrada del Rosario (parish priest ca. 1839-63) or Fr. Juan Alcoseba (parish priest 1880s)

Bastioned fort

Renovated

 

 

07-59 Ocoy

Uncertain, various authors cite different dates—after 1628 raids; 1790; and as late as the 1860s/ Attributed to Fr. Doroteo Andrada del Rosario

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-60 Punta Baluarte

After 1628 raids; 1790s, 1860s/ Attributed to Fr. Doroteo Andrada del Rosario

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-61 Silion

After 1628 raids; 1790/ Uncertain

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-62 Santa Fe

Uncertain, various dates suggested—after 1628 raids; 1790/ Recollects? Most likely, secular clergy

Bastioned fort

Ruins

 

 

07-63 Suba

After 1628 raids; 1790/ Attributed to local parish priest, especially Fr. Doroteo Andrada del Rosario

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-64 Tamiao

After 1628 raids; 1790; another date given 1860s/ Attributed to Fr. Doroteo del Rosario

Watchtower

Ruins

 

Camotes

07-65 Poro

Probably late 18th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

07-66 San Francisco

Probably late 18th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

Siquijor

07-67 Lazi

1884, 1887/ Toribio Sanchez, OAR

Belltower

Good conditon

 

 

07-68 Siquijor

1795/ Alonso de los Dolores OAR

Forfied church with independent Belltower

Fair condition

Region 8: Eastern Visayas

 

Northern Samar

08-01 Calomotan

Uncertain, insufficient data/ Uncertain

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

08-02 Capul Church

17th-18th cent/ Jesuits; renovated by the Franciscans

Bastioned fort

Degraded

 

 

08-03 Capul Tower

Uncertain, most likely built at the same time as the fortified church of Capul./ Probably Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

08-04 Lauang

Probably second half of the 18th century/ Franciscans

Fortified church

Little remains

 

 

08-05 Palapag

Fortification and church Before 1649; repaired after 1650. Probable reconstruction of the church in the 18th century./ Jesuit, church complex builder Fr. Otazo; SJ, Ignacio Alzina, SJ

Fortified church

Fortification-some remains; church-recently restored

 

 

08-06 Laoang Island Simbujan

Uncertain, Insufficient data/ Uncertain

Quadrilateral fort

Unconfirmed

 

Samar

08-07 Basey

Probably late 18th to 19th centuries/ Probably Jesuits and/ or Franciscans

Fortified church

Little remains

 

 

08-08 Catbalogan

18th century/ Jesuit

Fortified church

Partial remains

 

 

08-09 Paranas [Wright]

Uncertain/ Probably Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

08-10 Zumarraga [Buad] (Santa Barbara)

Probably 18th century/ Uncertain either Jesuits or  Franciscans

Fortification

Ruins

 

 

08-11 Villareal [Umauas]

Probably 18th century/ Attributed to the Jesuits

Fortification

Ruins

 

Eastern Samar

08-12 Guiuan

Probably 18th century/ Jesuits, repaired by Franciscans 19th century

Fortified church

Renovated

 

 

08-13 Sulat

Before 1768/ Attributed to the Jesuits

Fortified church

Partial remains

 

 

08-14 Taft [Tubig]

Before 1768/ Attributed to the Jesuits

Fortified church

Little remains

 

Biliran

08-15 Maripipi

Before 1768. The precise date for the construction of the watchtower is uncertain as documents about the fortification are lacking./ Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

08-16 Nasunugan

18th century; ca. 1765 to 1774; burned ca. 1774/ Attributed to Pbro. Gaspar Ignacio de Guevara

Fortification

Ruins

 

 

08-17 Ilawod

before 1712/ Probably Jesuits or probably the military if the watchtower is associated with the shipyard of Panamao (former name of Biliran Island).

Watchtower

Unconfirmed

 

Leyte

08-18 Abuyog

1718/ Jesuit

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

08-19 Alangalang

Before 1768/ Jesuits

Fortified convento

No remains

 

 

08-20 Babatngon

1862/ Most likely, Franciscans as the Leyte island was under the care of the friars from 1834 onwards

 

No remains reported

 

 

08-21 Barugo

Before 1768/ Jesuits

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

08-22 Between Carigara and Barugo

Probably 18th century/ Most likely Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

08-23 Carigara

Before 1754/ Jesuits

Fortification

No remains

 

 

08-24 Dagami

Before 1768/ Jesuit

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

08-25 Dulag

Before 1768 and 19th century/ Jesuits and Cipriano Barbasan, OSA

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

08-26 Hilongos

By the 18th century/ Jesuits

Fortified church

Degraded; church renovated

 

 

08-27 Ormoc City

Existing remains uncertain, but earlier fort built ca. 1634/ Earlier fort by Juan del Carpio, SJ; possible builders after Carpio

Fortified church

Some remains

 

 

08-28 Palompon

Before 1768/ Jesuits

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

08-29 Matalom

1841/ Augustinians?

Watchtower

Renovated

 

 

08-30 Palo

18th century, most like ca. 1718 when a stone church was built/ Jesuits

Fortification

No remains

 

 

08-31 Tanauan

1630s-1704/ Jesuits, beginning of construction attributed to Melchor de Vera

Fortified church

Some remains

 

Southern Leyte

08-32 San Juan (Cabalian)

1620s/ Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

08-33-34 Hinunangan

Probably before 1768/ Probably Jesuits

Watchtower

Good condition

 

 

08-35-36 Hinunangan

Uncertain/ Uncertain

Watchtower

Good condition

 

 

08-37 Maasin Church

1874 (church); 1781 (fort)/ Church and convento by Franciscans; fort probably by Augustinians or secular clergy?

Fortified church

Degraded fortification, church renovated

 

 

08-38 Maasin Market

Probably 18th century/ Uncertain

Watchtower

Burnt 1993

 

 

08-39-40 Malitbog

1862/ Uncertain, probably military

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

08-41 Sogod

late 18th – early 19th centuries / Attributed to the Secular or diocesan clergy

Watchtower

Ruins

Region

Province

Catalogue Number Muncipality/ City

Date of construction/ Builder

Type

Status

 

 

24
Jan
08

Fortifications of Luzon

 

Fortifications of Luzon

 

 

Region

Province

Catalogue Number Muncipality/ City

Date of Construction/ Builder

Type

Status

Luzon

 

 

 

 

 

Region 1: Ilocos

 

Ilocos Norte

01-01 Bacarra

ca. late-18th century

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

01-02 Badoc

Probably early-18th/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

01-03-04 Currimao

late-18th century

Watchtower

Ruins (North tower better preserved than the south tower)

 

 

01-05 Laoag

1700/ Augustinians

Belltower

Repaired

 

 

01-06 Pasuquin

ca. late-18th century

Watchtower

Ruined but sufficient remains

 

Ilocos Sur

01-07 Bantay

Probably 1691-92;restored 1870-85, 1892/ Alonso Cortes, OSA, Eduardo Navarro, OSA and Lizardo Villanueva, OSA

Belltower

Repaired, used as church belltower

 

 

01-08 Cabugao

After 1791/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Partially ruined

 

 

01-09 Narvacan Sulvec

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Restored

 

 

01-10-11 San Esteban

mid-19th century/ Dámaso Vieytez, OSA, Don Agustín Santiago and Don Domingo Sumabas

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

01-12 Santa

Most likely 18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

UNCERTAIN

 

 

01-13 Santiago

mid-19th century/ Dámaso Vieytez, OSA, Don Agustín Santiago and Don Domingo Sumabas

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

01-14 Sinait

Most likely 18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Partially ruined

 

 

01-15 Santo Domingo

Uncertain

Watchtower

Ruins

 

La Union

01-16 Bacnotan

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Uncertain

 

 

01-17 Balaoan Darigayos

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

01-18 Bauang

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

No remains but oral tradition attest to existence of tower in the past

 

 

01-19 Carlatan

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Reused as a residence in a resort

 

 

01-20 Luna

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruined recently

 

 

01-21 San Juan

Probably late-18th century/ Augustinians

Watchtower

Ruins

Region 2: Cagayan

 

Batanes

02-01 Basco (Fuerza de San Vicente)

ca. 1798/ Dominicans

Fortification

No remains

 

 

02-02 Ivana (San Felix de Naviec)

After 1791/ probably military

Fortification

No remains

 

Isabela

02-03 Cabagan

Demolished by 1738/ Military

Fortification

No remains

 

Cagayan

02-04 Capinata[n] (Presidio de San José)

ca. 1719/ Military

Fortification

No remains

 

 

02-05 Cavicunga (Presidio de San José)

ca/ 1738/ Military

Fortification

No remains

 

 

02-07 Itugud (Fuerza de Santiago)

Before 1738/ Military

Fortification

No remains

 

 

02-08 Lallo (Castillo de San Francisco)

Before 1719; NHI-“prior to 1751”/ Military

Fortification

No remains

 

 

02-09 Tuao (Fuerza de San José)

Before 1719/ Military

Fortification

Ruins

 

Nueva Vizcaya

02-06 Dupax (Church of San Vicente Ferrer)

18th century (1776)/ Dominicans

Fortified church

Some remains of loopholes in convento

CAR Cordillera Administrative Region

 

Abra

CAR-01 Bucay (Fuerte Gen. Martinez, Cuartel de Bucay)

Probably first half 19th century (1848)/ probably military

Fortification

Ruins

Region 3: Central Luzon

 

Aurora

03-01 Baler Tower 1

1847/ Jose Urbina de Esparragosa, OFM

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

03-02 Baler Tower 2

1847/ Jose Urbina de Esparragosa OFM

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

03-03 Baler Church

Probably 1864/ Jose Urbina de Esparragosa OFM

Fortified church

No remains

 

 

03-04 Baler Naval Station

19th century/ Spanish Navy

Naval Station

No remains

 

 

03-05 Casiguran

Probably late-19th century/ Franciscans

Watchtower

Uncertain

 

Bataan

03-06 Morong

Probably late-18th century/ Recollects

Fortified church

Renovated

 

Pam-panga

03-07 Mamalas

Demolished by 1738/ private individual (maintained by Capt. Miguel de Pelayo)

Fortification

No remains

 

Zambales

03-08 Botolan (La Playa Honda)

ca. 1663-68/ Military

Fortification

Ruins covered with lahar

 

 

03-09 Subic

1885/ Navy

Naval Station

Gate exists, renovated

NCR National Capital Region

 

 

NCR-01 Manila (Intramuros)

1594-1878/ Various—e.g. Antonio Sedeño SJ, Dionisio Tongco, Gov. Gen. Perez de Dasmariñas, Juan de Ciscara, Dionisio O’Kelley

Fortified city

Restored

 

 

NCR-02 Manila (Santiago)

1581/ Various [See above NCR-01]

Bastioned fort

 

Restored

 

 

NCR-03 Manila (San Antonio Abad)

1584; renovated and reinforced, 1764/ Military

Bastioned fort

 

Restored

 

 

NCR-04 San Juan (Polverin)

1771/ Military

Ammunition depot

Little remains

Region 4A: CALABARZON (Formerly Southern Tagalog)

 

Batangas

04A-01 Batangas

Before 1778/ Augustinians

Fortfied church

 

No remains

 

 

04A-02 Bauang

Between 1671 and 1689 (fortification at Lonal or Loual); 1775 (fortification at Aplaya Bay) demolished 1845/ Nicolás de Rivera, OSA (Lonal fortification); Miguel Bañas, OSA (Aplaya Bay fortification)

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

04A-03-05 Various Sites

Insufficient data

Watchtowers

Unconfirmed

 

Cavite

04A-06 Cavite City (Puerto de Cavite)

Early 16th-19th century/ Military, various architects and engineers

Fortified city

Little remains

 

 

04A-07 Cavite City (San Felipe)

1609-1616, constructed; Renovated 1705; demolished early 20th century/ Military; renovation 1705 Juan de Ciscara

Bastioned fort

Royal shipyard

Little remains: Gate part of a wall and bastion

 

 

04A-08-12 Corregidor

1779 onwards / In the 18th century, the Spanish navy. In the 20th century, the American military

Naval Station

 

Partially restored

 

 

04A-13 Maragondon

Probably 18th century/ Probably Jesuits

Fortified church

Little remains

 

Laguna

04A-14 Santa Rosa

1877/ Guardia civil

Military barracks

Ruins

 

Quezon

04A-15 Atimonan (Iskong Bantay)

ca. 1752/ Probably Franciscans

 

Watchtower

Rins

 

 

04A-16 Atimonan Convent

1696 / Fray José de Jesus Maria, OFM

Fortified church

 

Renovated

 

 

04A-17 Gumaca (San Diego de Alcala)

Second half 18th century, 1850 (connecting wall)/ Franciscans; in the 19th century, Francisco Costa, OFM

Fortification

Partial ruins renovated

 

 

04A-18 Lucena

Before 1887/ Probably Franciscans

Watchtower

No remains

Region 4B: MIMAROPA

 

Marindu-que

04B-01 Boac Church

18th century/ Jesuits

Fortified church

Renovated

 

 

04B-02 Boac Laylay Tower

18th century?/ Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

04B-03 Gasan

19th century/ Probably secular clergy

Watchtower

Fortified church

Ruins

 

 

04B-04 Mogpog

18th century/ Jesuis

Fortified church

Little remains

 

 

04B-05 Sta Cruz Church

18th century; 1721/ Jesuits

Fortified church

Renovated church, walls degraded

 

 

04B-06 Sta Cruz Tower

18th century?/ Jesuits

Watchtower

Renovated

 

Mindoro

04B-07 Bongabong

Probably 17th century, if the Jesuit attribution is correct/ Attributed to the Jesuits

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

04B-08 Calapan

1768/ Diego de San José, OAR

Watchtower

 

Some remains, portion of wall and bastion

 

 

04B-09 Naujan

Probably late 18th to 19th century/ Probably Recollects

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

04B-10 Puerto Galera

Probably 18th century, 1753 onwards/ Militar

Naval station

No remains

 

 

04B-11 San Teodoro

Probably 19th century/ Recollects

Watchtower

Degraded

 

Palawan

04B-12 Agutaya

1683, other dates given are 1739 and 1784 as the date of completion./ Juan de Severo, OAR; the 1784 dated fort is attributed to the encomendero Antonio de Rojas who delineated the plan of the fort.

Bastioned fort

Degraded

 

 

04B-13 Balabac

After 1857/ Military

Naval Station

Uncertain

 

 

04B-14 Cagayancillo

late 16th (ca. 1580s) century to 1701-1714/ Fray Nicolas Melo, OSA;  Fray Alonso Calosa, OSA (parish priest from 1590-1602); Fray Hipolito Casiano (parish priest 1690 – 1714

Bastioned fort

Degraded

 

 

04B-15 Culion

1683, renovated and improved 1740/ Juan de Severo OAR

Bastioned fort

Some remains

 

 

04B-16 Cuyo Poblacion

1683; the NHI historical marker at Cuyo gives as construction date as “about 1680.” Bell tower built in 1827/ Juan de Severo, OAR

Bastioned fort

Renovated

 

 

04B-17 Cuyo Lucbuan

Probably 19th century/ Uncertain, probably the townspeople or the military

Fortification

Degraded

 

 

04B-18 Linapacan Poblacion (San Miguel)

before 1738/ Recollects and townspeople

Natural Fortification

Ruins

 

 

04B-19 Linapacan Caseladan

Before 1738/ Recollect

Bastioned fort

 

Ruins

 

 

04B-20 Puerto Princesa (Cuarteles)

19th century/ Spanish military

Military barracks

 

Some remains: Gate

 

 

04B-21 Taytay

1626, ca. 1738/ Agustin de San Pedro OAR; military engineer Tomás de Castro

Bastioned fort

Ruins

 

 

04B-22 Labo[g]

1719; demolished 1720/ Atilano de San José, OAR

Fortification

No remains

 

 

04B-23 Dumaran

Probably late 18th century or early 19th (See discussion below)/ Probably Recollect

Fortification

Ruins

 

 

04B-24 Silanga

Uncertain/ Probably Recollects

Watchtower

No remains

 

Romblon

04B-25 Banton

 

1644, more probably 18thcentury; renovated 1990s/ Recollecs, attributed to Fray Agustin de San Pedro “El padre capitan,” assigned to Banton 1640-50

Fortified church

 

Renovated

 

 

04B-26 Romblon San Andres

1640-50/ Agustin de San Pedro OAR, “padre capitan

Bastioned fort

 

Degraded, used as PAGASA meteorogical station

 

 

04B-27 Romblon Santiago

1640-50 / Agustin de San Pedro, OAR

Gun emplacement

Ruins

 

 

04B-28 Simara (Corcuera)

1855-1860/ Recollects, misattributed to Agustin de San Pedro

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

04B-29 Sibuyan

Probably 19th century/ Probably military

Military barracks

Degraded, abandoned

 

 

04B-30 Tablas

Insufficient data but reported in a 1791 list of fortifications in the Visayas. Tablas is listed as having a stone baluarte./ Probably Recollects

Watchtower

Uncertain

Region 5: Bicol

 

Camarines

05-01 Jose Panganiban [Mambulao] (Fuerza de San Carlos)

1755/ Don Francisco Xavier Estrogo Gallegos

Watchtower

No remains reported

 

 

05-02 Libmanan

18th century/ Probably townspeople under the military

Watchtower

No remains reported

 

 

05-03 Paracale (Fuerza de San Fernando de Malaguit)

1754/ Francisco Xavier Estrogo Gallegos

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

05-04 Pasacao

18th century-19th century/ Military

Watchtower

No remains reported

 

 

05-05 Vinzon [Indan]

late 18th to 19th century / Uncertain

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

05-06-08 Various Sites

late 18th century-early 19th century/ Townspeople with local leaders

Watchtower

Degraded

 

Albay

05-09 Albay

By 1884, probably by 18th century/ Probably townspeople with help of the military

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

05-10 Bato (Fuerza de San Felipe Neri)

 

Late 18th century/ Townspeople with local leaders

Watchtower

Uncertain

 

 

05-11 Lagonoy

 

late 18th century/ Townspeople with local leaders

Watchtower

Uncertain

 

 

05-12 Tabaco

 

Late 18th century/ Towns people, Franciscans

Belltower

 

Good condition

 

 

05-13 Tiwi

 

late 18th century/ Townspeople with local leaders

Watchtower

Uncertain

 

 

05-14-19 Various Sites

late 18th century/ Townspeople with local leaders

Watchtower

Unconfirmed, degraded

 

Sorsogon

05-20-21 Bacon

Probably 18th century/ Townspeople with the Franciscan parish priest

Fortified town

Watchtower

Degraded, walls remain

Ruins

 

 

05-22 Bagatao

Before 1616/ Most likely the navy

Naval Station

Royal shipyard

No remains

 

 

05-23 Bulan

After 1801/ Captains or gobernadorcillo of town, probably under the direction of the military or the Franciscan friars

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

05-24 Bulusan-Dapdap

ca. 1760/ Probably Franciscans with townspeople

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

05-25 Bulusan-Macabare

ca. 1760/ Probably Franciscans with townspeople

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

05-26 Bulusan-Layog

1799/ Probably Townspeople under their local gobernadorcillos

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

05-27 Bulusan-Poblacion

ca. 1760/ Probably Franciscans with the townspeople

Fortified church

Degraded, walls still standing

 

 

05-28 Bulusan-Tawog

ca. 1760/ Probably Franciscans with townspeople

Watchtower

Degraded

 

 

05-29-34 Casiguran

18th century/ Most likely townspeople under the Franciscans and military

Watchtowers

Uncertain

 

 

05-35 Donsol

17th century/ Spanish navy

Fortification

Royal shipyard

No remains

 

 

05-36 Pilar (Astillero de Pilar)

Second half of the 16th century to early 17th century/ Spanish navy

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

05-37 Juban

Probably by mid-18th century/ Probably townspeople with local parish priest

Watchtower

Ruins

 

 

05-38-56 Various

Various dates. Built by the 18th century, between 1734 and 1844/ Townspeople with under the leadership of the local priest or friar or a civil servant or the miltiary

Watchtower

Degraded

 

Masbate

05-57 Baleno

18th century?/ Townspeople and local leaders

Watchtower

No remains

 

 

05-58 Mobo (El Invincible Obando)

1752 demolished

not long afterconstruction/Lucas de CastroOAR

Fortification

Demolished few years after 1752

 

Ticao

05-59 Ticao (Fuerza de San Jacinto)

Built by 1799 or by 1810 / Agustin de Santa Catalina, OAR

Watchtower

No remains

Region

Province

Catalogue Number Muncipality/ City